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Technology Description

Shipping can be used as a long-distance transportation method for CO2 , offering more flexibility than pipelines over long distances. CO2 can be shipped at low-, medium- and high-pressure conditions depending on the design of the tanker. Low-pressure and medium-pressure conditions are similar to those found in LPG shipping. Shipping can be port-to-port or port-to-offshore. Infrastructure for CO2 liquification, loading and temporary storage of CO2 is required at the port of departure, and similar infrastructure is required at the receiving port in the case of port-to-port shipping. When CO2 is shipped from port to an offshore location, ships need to be able to interface with offshore infrastructure to unload CO2 into temporary storage, or directly inject it into the storage site. The TRL of ship-based transport of CO2 with direct injection is the lowest, followed by port-to-offshore shipping and then port-to-port shipping.

Relevance for Net Zero

CO2 transport is an essential element of the CCUS chain. Shipping is particularly interesting for long distance transport of relatively small volumes of CO2. It also provides more flexibility compared to pipeline transport. CCUS is a key technology enabling emissions reductions across the power, industry and fuel transformation sectors. Furthermore, it can deliver negative emissions by removing CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it permanently underground.

Key Countries

Norway, Iceland, Denmark, Netherlands, Singapore

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