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Natural refrigerant heat pump water heaters


Technology Description

Heat pump water heaters using a natural refrigerant, such as CO2, propane gas or ammonia (whose global warming potential can be more than 1000 times lower than conventional refrigerants such as R134a or R410a). For heat pump CO2 water heaters, the refrigerant operates in a transcritical cycle (i.e. behaving like a gas but with the density of a liquid), which enhances energy performance.

Relevance for Net Zero

Up to 25-50% energy benefits compared to current code-compliant ones, refrigerant with low global warming potential. CO2 in particular is none-ozone depleting, non-flammable and has a low toxicity per the ISO 817 definition.

Key Countries

Europe, China, Japan, United States

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