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Hydrogen tank (road vehicles)


Technology Description

Hydrogen tanks are needed to store hydrogen on board vehicles in a gaseous form. Due to its low volumetric energy density, hydrogen requires very high pressure storage (between 35 and 70 Mpa). The challenges related to hydrogen tanks are safety (as H2 under pressure poses a fire risk, especially in case of leakage), durability (materials and components are needed that allow hydrogen storage systems with a lifetime of 1500 cycles, according to the US Department of Energy,, certification and standardisation by component suppliers for vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturers, further reductions in tank weight and optimisation of shape and space in the vehicle (e.g. through alternatives to the current cylindrical shape). The industry response to the tank safety challenge is standardisation and modularity, which translates into, for example, buses being fitted with up to 10 individual cylindrical tanks.

Relevance for Net Zero

In case fuel cell electric vehicles emerge as a strategic complementary solution to battery electric vehicles, further improvements in the design and mass production of hydrogen tanks will be key to ensuring safety and high vehicle ranges at an acceptable cost.

Key Countries

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