top of page

Hydrogen liquefaction


Technology Description

Hydrogen liquefaction involves a multi-stage process of compression and cooling to -253 °C, so that it is liquefied and stored in cryogenic tanks, increasing its volumetric density. The process starts with hydrogen compression and an optional (liquid nitrogen) pre-cooling to -193 °C, followed by cryogenic cooling to -243 °C (including heat exchangers and ortho- to para- catalytic conversion) and a final isenthalpic expansion to bring hydrogen to liquid phase at -253 °C and 1 bar. Hydrogen liquefaction is an energy-intensive process, especially for compression. The most recent hydrogen liquefaction plants have an electricity consumption of approximately 10 kWh/kg, equivalent to around 30% of the energy content (LHV) of hydrogen, and while hydrogen liquefaction is considered an established technology, efficiency improvements to values around 6 kWh/kg are expected in larger plants. Electricity costs are only a fraction of the hydrogen liquefaction costs and the capital cost for liquefaction is also expected to decrease with further innovations.

Relevance for Net Zero

Hydrogen liquefaction makes it possible to transport and store hydrogen at higher densities than compressed hydrogen, and although the technology has been available for decades, it still needs to be scaled up to reduce costs and improve efficiency.

Key Countries

United States, Japan, Korea, Germany, France

WhatsApp Image 2024-02-06 at 3.17.05 PM.jpeg
Share your challenge to quickly find solutions
Have a solution for
this technology?

List your innovation on the InCarbZero platform and increase your visibility to industry partners.

bottom of page