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Enzymatic fermentation without CCUS (sugar and starch bioethanol)


Technology Description

Bioethanol from sugar and starch crops is considered a conventional (first generation) biofuel. Carbohydrates (sugars) are enzymatically fermented into ethanol, producing a liquid biofuel that can be blended up to 15% with gasoline for any gasoline engine, and up to 85% for flex fuel vehicles, and 95% for dedicated (compression ignition) ethanol engines. However, in addition to challenges around blend limits, there are sustainability concerns with using food crops for ethanol production, which can lead to competition with food and undesirable land use change.

Relevance for Net Zero

Conventional ethanol has been important to the development of the first biofuel supply chains, but without associated carbon capture and storage (CCS), and given its feedstock competition with food, it is expected to be completely phased out in the long term.

Key Countries

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