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Hydrogenated vegetable oil / Hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (biodiesel)


Technology Description

Hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) - also known as hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (HEFA) - is a type of renewable diesel while HEFA is a type of drop-in biokerosene, meaning it is a drop-in fuel and theoretically has no upper blend limit with fossil diesel and kerosene, though it is currently capped at 50% blend for use in aviation. HVO is produced via well-known hydrotreatment commonly used at petroleum refineries. An oil feedstock (vegetable oil such a soybean, palm or rapeseed, or waste oils such as animal fats and used cooking oils) is reacted with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst to remove oxygen and break the triglycerides in the oil into three separate hydrocarbon chains. When compared to FAME biodiesel, HVO/HEFA has better storage stability, cold flow properties and a higher cetane number (higher ignitibility). HVO/HEFA kerosene/jet fuel is an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-certified sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) pathway, allowed to be blended up to 50%.

Relevance for Net Zero

There are sustainability limits to oilseed crop feedstock and inherent limitations to waste oil feedstock that limit the overall potential for growth.

Key Countries

Finland, Singapore, United States, France, Italy, Netherlands, China

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