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High temperature molten oxide electrolysis (> 1500°C)


Technology Description

Molten oxide electrolysis (MOE) is an electrometallurgical process used to produce liquid metal directly from oxide feedstocks. Electrons are the reducing agents, and the products of the reaction are pure metal and oxygen. The steelmaking process requires high temperatures of up to 2000 °C.

Relevance for Net Zero

The use of renewable electricity would open a fully CO2 free production route for steel, and a reduction of about 30% of energy use compared to standard steel making. It can be designed to respond to electricity grid load balancing to integrate further variable renewables for power generation. However, it is at much earlier stages of development compared to other low emission steel-making technologies.

Key Countries

United States

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