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Multivalent ion battery

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Technology Description

The proposed concept for this technology is to use elements where each constituent active ion is able to release more than one electron. Commonly studied elements for this concept are magnesium, calcium and aluminium. These offer the potential for very high energy density and to move away from reliance on lithium and other scarce materials. The technology is still at early stages of development. Battery reuse (e.g. second-life applications, for instance for energy storage) and/or recycling technologies and policies will be essential to ensure that batteries contribute to sustainability goals.

Relevance for Net Zero

These chemistries are based on abundant minerals which have advantages for cost and for reducing supply chain constraints and reliance on critical minerals. Beyond lithium-ion, technologies that have higher energy density and lower material costs are needed to electrify vehicles that operate in energy- and power-intensive and long-distance operations, including aircrafts, ships and heavy-duty (e.g. drayage, regional and long-haul) trucks.

Key Countries

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