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Lignin (biomass) (benzene, toluene and xylenes)


Technology Description

BTX aromatics can be produced from lignin via several different routes, including cracking of de-oxygenated lignin, catalytic conversion, production from sugars (by the Diels-Alder reaction), or a hydrolysis plus nanofiltration or pervaporation process.

Relevance for Net Zero

This production route would avoid the direct use of fossil fuels in aromatics production. However, availability of sustainable biomass may put an upper limit on the potential for this process route. It is also capital and energy intensive, and the use of biomass - a high-cost commodity - makes it more expensive than competing options (such as CCS).

Key Countries

Germany, Belgium, Netherlands

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