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Crystalline silicon PV


Technology Description

Today, the vast majority of PV modules are based on wafer-based crystalline silicon (c-Si). The manufacturing of c-Si modules typically involves growing ingots of silicon, slicing the ingots into wafers to make solar cells, electrically interconnecting the cells, and encapsulating the strings of cells to form a module. Modules currently use silicon in one of two main forms: single- (sc-Si) or multi- (mc-Si) crystalline modules. Current commercial single-crystalline modules have a higher conversion efficiency of around 14 to 20%. Their efficiency is expected to increase up to 25% in the longer term. Multi-crystalline silicon modules have a more disordered atomic structure leading to lower efficiencies, but they are less expensive. Their efficiency is expected to increase up to 21% in the long term.

Relevance for Net Zero

Dominating solar PV technology today, already competitive today in regions with good resource conditions.

Key Countries

Australia, China, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Türkiye, United States

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