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Calcium looping


Technology Description

Calcium looping is a technology that involves CO2 capture at high temperature using two main reactors. In the first reactor, lime (CaO) is used as a sorbent to capture CO2 from a gas stream to form calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The CaCO3 is subsequently transported to the second reactor where it is regenerated, resulting in lime (CaO) and a pure stream of CO2. The lime is then looped back to the first reactor. Nearly pure oxygen is typically used (oxyfuel combustion) to supply a large heat flow to the second reactor. A main benefit of calcium looping is potentially lower overall process energy consumption compared to other capture technologies. The technology is well suited for application to the flue gases from kilns, the main unit producing clinker for cement production.

Relevance for Net Zero

CO2 capture and storage is a key technology to reduce otherwise difficult to avoid process emissions from cement production. Most alternative CCS technologies are more costly and/or at earlier stages of development, while other lower emission alternatives for producing cement, such as alternative binding materials, face challenges such as low TRL or limitations in raw material availability.

Key Countries

Germany, Italy, Chinese Taipei

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